Viewing Transformation is the mapping of coordinates of points and lines that form the picture into appropriate coordinates on the display device.
World coordinate system (WCS) is the right handed cartesian co-ordinate system where we define the picture to be displayed. A finite region in the WCS is called the Window. The corresponding coordinate system on the display device where the image of the picture is displayed is called the physical coordinate system. Mapping the window onto a subregion of the display device called the viewport is called the Viewing Transformation. Normalized device coordinate (NDC) is the display area of the virtual display device corresponding to a unit square. The lower left handed corner is the origin of the coordinate system. Mapping the window in the world coordinate space to viewport in NDC space is called the Normalization Transformation, N.
where is the scale in x and y directions, given by
A 3D scene can be viewed from any posistion in 3D space. A "synthetic" camera positioned and oriented in 3D space can be used to describe the viewing, and the part of the image or scene to be viewed . It has the following three principal ingredients.
Let be the look-at-point. For perspective views, the view plane normal as a unit vector from eye to a ``look-at point'' is given by
The view up vector is the tilt (rotation) of the head or camera.
For parallel views it is convenient to think of the view plane normal as determining the direction of projection.
An object in world coordinate space, whose vertices are can be expressed in term of view coordinates .